Monday, 28 October 2013

Lexus-RX

Lexus-RX

The Lexus RX is a crossover sport utility vehicle (SUV) sold since 1998 by Lexus, the luxury division of Toyota. Originally released in its home market of Japan in late 1997 as the Toyota Harrier, exports began in early 1998 as Lexus RX. Three generations of the Lexus RX have been produced to date, the first being compact in size, and the latter two classified as mid-size. Both front- and four-wheel drive configurations have been used on the RX series, and several gasoline powertrain options, including V6 engines and hybrid systems, have been offered. In the Lexus model lineup, the RX sits below the larger GX and LX body-on-frame SUVs, and remains the marque's only crossover model. The RX name stands for Radiant Crossover. It has also been labelled as "Recreation Cross Country" in some markets.
 Introduced in 2009 as a 2010 model year vehicle, the RX 450h (GLV10/GLV15) premiered alongside its non-hybrid counterpart, the RX 350. Manufacturer's specifications indicated largely identical outward dimensions for the RX 450h with the RX 350. The RX 450h was scheduled to go on sale in the U.S. in mid to late 2009, with sales introductions for the RX 450h in Asia (including Japan) and Europe in the same year. The RX 450h features an upgraded 3.5 L 2GR-FE V6 engine (shared with the RX 350) which produces 245 hp (183 kW) at 6000 rpm, along with a new inverter which boosts total horsepower to 297 hp (221 kW) (with the electric motors providing an added 22 hp (16 kW)). The new inverter is 8 kg lighter, and more efficient. Up to three electric motors are used in the hybrid system, including two dual motors for the forward wheels (123 kW output), and a third for the rear wheels on the AWD model (50 kW; engages when slippage is detected or the throttle pressed firmly). The RX 450h's V6 engine now runs on the Atkinson cycle for added efficiency. Compared to the prior Otto cycle system, the Atkinson cycle has a lower compression ratio, along with higher expansion ratio inside engine cylinders. This system uses less energy to form fuel-air mixtures, and releases more energy. A lighter, more free-flowing oil (0W-20) is also used, reducing friction energy loss and oil pump power requirements. Two additional systems are added to the RX 450h's Lexus Hybrid Drive powertrain, an exhaust-heat recovery system to reduce engine warm-up periods (optimizing engine start-stop times, particularly in cold conditions), and a cooled exhaust gas-recirculation system to reduce fuel pumping loss The electric motors use the first automotive application of liquid cooling on both sides of the high-current transistors, allowing greater contribution from the electric motors versus the gasoline engine.
 Fuel efficiency for the RX 450h, according to EPA testing, is increased by twenty percent over the previous RX 400h. Initial manufacturer data pointed to an increase of at least eight percent over the prior model. In the U.S., the RX 450h is certified with a 2009 EPA fuel economy rating of 32 mpg city, 28 highway for the FWD model, and 30 mpg city, 28 highway for the AWD model. This 30 mpg combined rating compares with the 20 mpg combined rating of the non-hybrid RX model. The powertrain is linked to an instrument panel Eco light indicator, which enables drivers to monitor their fuel efficiency as it correlates with accelerator modulation.
 For 2013, RX450h models get a new “Sport” mode to complement the Normal, Eco, and EV drive modes found in the current RX hybrid. When engaged, Sport mode not only modifies the throttle and electric-power-steering settings for faster response, but also is said to provide less-intrusive operation of the car’s stability- and traction-control systems. That’s a welcome change; we often find ourselves filling otherwise-serene Lexus cabins with the sound of angry beeps when attempting any sort of enthusiastic maneuver. Sport mode also changes the instrument panel’s illumination from a peaceful hybrid blue hue to a fiery red, a touch we’re not entirely convinced isn’t an attempt at subliminal political commentary.

Current Lexus RX 450h
The Lexus RX 450h's 3.5-liter gas V6 engine and battery-pack-driven electric motors/generators yield an impressive total output of 295 hp. All that thrust runs through a specialized continuously variable transmission (CVT), and despite its extra pounds, the hybrid RX is still plenty quick. Fuel economy estimates stand at 30 mpg combined with standard front-wheel drive, or 29 mpg combined with optional all-wheel drive.
Standard luxury features include 18-inch alloy wheels, a power liftgate, keyless ignition/entry, a power tilt-and-telescoping steering wheel, dual-zone automatic climate control and a nine-speaker sound system with an iPod/USB interface. A Sport driving mode is also standard, which changes steering effort, throttle response and transmission shifts for a livelier drive. Options (many grouped in packages) include a blind-spot warning system, leather upholstery, heated and cooled front seats, a navigation system, a rear DVD entertainment system and a rearview camera.

Sunday, 27 October 2013

Lexus-LFA

Lexus-LFA

The Lexus LFA is a two-seat supercar from Lexus. It is the second model in the F marque line of performance vehicles from Lexus, following the IS F. Three concept versions have been shown, each debuting at the North American International Auto Show with the LF-A designation as part of the LF Series concept line. After beginning development in the early 2000s (codenamed P280), the first LF-A concept premiered in 2005, followed in 2007 by a second LF-A with a more completely furnished interior and exterior. The third version of the LF-A, a roadster model, premiered in 2008. The production model, trademarked LFA,was shown at the Tokyo Motor Show in October 2009.
The production Lexus LFA features a new V10 engine and a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) body. CFRP materials account for 65 percent of the LFA's body composition by mass. The LFA went into production in late 2010, with a base price of US$375,000. A circuit-tuned variant debuted in 2012 with a base price of US$445,000, making it one of the most expensive Japanese road car ever built.Production ended in December 2012 with 500 vehicles completed, the final version being a Nürburgring Package model.
 exus began taking orders for the LFA supercar on October 23, 2009. Buyers were selectively chosen by Lexus in the second quarter of 2010.[40] Production began in December 2010 as a 2011 model. Only 500 total LFA models were scheduled to be made worldwide, with only 20 produced each month. Each car had to be custom ordered to the customer's specifications, and cost approximately US$375,000, depending on options and customization. Following the LFA's release at the Tokyo Motor Show, Lexus unveiled a website with a 'LFA configurator' which allowed users to select exterior and interior colors, brake caliper colors, seats, steering wheel leather, and other interior designs. In total, there were over 30 billion possible configurations. Each LFA was hand-built by a dedicated production team of engineers and specialists at Toyota's Motomatchi plant in Aichi, Japan.
Production LFAs, lined up in Yokohama
In the North American market 150 LFAs were initially sold through a two-year lease program much like the Ferrari F50. This was to prevent owners from reselling the vehicle for a profit. Racing driver Scott Pruett was hired to give test drives to interested buyers, demonstrating the vehicle's capabilities at Auto Club Speedway. The Lexus division of Toyota Motor USA stopped taking orders at the end of 2009, at which time they planned to open discussions about a purchase plan for the lessees. Lexus later changed their stance and allowed outright purchase, but only on the condition that they sign an agreement giving the dealer first right of refusal to buy back the LFA if the owner wanted to sell it within the first two years. The dealer would have the option to buy back the used LFA for either fair market value or the original sticker price, whichever is lower. In the European market buyers order their LFA through a single Lexus dealer located in Park Lane, London where it is purchased outright.

Engine

LFA 1LR-GUE V10 display model
The Lexus LFA is powered by a 72-degree bank angle 4.8-liter V10 engine equipped with dual VVT-i carrying the 1LR-GUE designation with a maximum output of 412 kW (560 PS) delivered at 8,700 rpm. Its maximum torque output of 480 N·m (354 lb·ft) arrives at 6,800 rpm, 90 percent of which is available from 3,700 rpm. The engine redlines at 9,000 rpm, but with a fuel cutoff set at 9,500 rpm, and is constructed using forged aluminum pistons, forged titanium connecting rods, and solid titanium valves. The V angle of the LFA's V-10 engine is set to 72-degrees (as opposed to the 90-degree V angle present in a Dodge Viper's V-10) to fully balance the firing force from the pistons. This 72-degree angle allows for even firing from the pistons without the use of a split-journal crankshaft, thus improving engine efficiency as well as lowering overall weight. Dry sump lubrication prevents engine oil starvation through high speed corners and lowers the engine's center of mass. Air is fed directly from beneath the hood through a visible slit passing into a dual stage variable intake manifold and then into ten individual throttle bodies before finally exiting from a dual stage titanium muffler.

Exterior

The production Lexus LFA has an overall length of 4,510 millimetres (177.4 in), while its wheelbase measures 2,610 millimetres (102.6 in), with a height of 48 inches (1,200 mm) and width of 74.6 in (1,895 mm). Compared to the prior 2007–2008 concepts, the production model is nearly 51 millimetres (2 in) longer, with identical width, height, and nearly same wheelbase dimensions. The exterior design of the LF-A concepts and the final production model was the work of car stylists led by Lexus Design general manager Kengo Matsumoto. The overall design ethos was based on the principle of form follows function, with aesthetics secondary to aerodynamics and operation.
Overhead view of the Lexus LFA with carbon fiber roof
The LFA body features sharp edges and cutoffs for improved aerodynamic performance, made possible by the carbon fiber body. The body was designed with an emphasis on downforce. There are air scoops located over the rear fenders which feed the aft-mounted radiators and help cool the brakes. A horizontal hood gap also feeds air to the engine. Two small aft vents expel air that is collected by an underbody air scoop and used to cool the titanium exhaust pipes. Dual hood ducts serve to move hot air away from the exhaust manifold.
The LFA's speed-sensitive rear wing incorporates a Gurney flap and deploys at speeds over 50 mph.With the wing retracted the LFA's body has a drag coefficient of Cd 0.31. The LFA body is offered with a choice of 28 standard exterior colors, along with 3 wheel colors and a matte black option. Additional "special colors" are available to order. The front and rear fenders, doors, roof rails, and rocker panels are made out of blast fiber reinforced sheet panels, while the tail lamps are light-emitting diode (LED) lights.

Nürburgring Package

Chassis of the Nürburgring Edition LFA at the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show, with its V10 producing an added 7 kW (10 bhp)
On March 15, 2010, Lexus detailed the circuit-tuned variant of the LFA, plans for which were first disclosed at the LFA official press launch the previous October.The variant is officially known as the LFA Nürburgring Package in reference to the similar setup employed on the LFA race vehicles at the 24 Hours Nürburgring.
The package features an extra 10 bhp (7 kW) from its V10 engine, bringing the total to 563 bhp (420 kW; 571 PS). It also features a re-calibrated transmission with gear shifts made faster by 0.05 seconds, a front splitter, stiffer and more adjustable suspension, lightweight alloy wheels coated in track rubber, aerodynamic canards at the sides of the front bumper, and a large fixed rear wing.
The LFA with the Nürburgring Package is a competition-focused variant, and will be available in four exterior colors, namely glossy black, matte black, orange, and whitest white. The production totals are to be included in the 500-unit total LFA planned build cycle, and will be limited to a 50-unit run. At a base price of US$445,000, buyers will receive training sessions at the Nordschleife, accompanied by Nürburgring chief instructors, a one-night stay at the Lindner Congress and Motorsport Hotel Nürburgring, admission to the ring°werk leisure park, a Nürburgring branded jacket, and a one-year pass to the circuit.

Lexus IS

Lexus IS

The Lexus IS is a series of entry-level luxury cars / compact executive cars sold by Lexus since 1998. The IS was introduced as an entry-level sport model slotted below the ES in the Lexus lineup (and outside of North America, the Lexus GS). The IS was originally sold under the Toyota Altezza nameplate in Japan (the word "altezza" is Italian for "highness") until the introduction of the Lexus brand and the second generation Lexus IS design in 2006. The Altezza name is still used at times to refer to chromed car taillights like those fitted to the first generation model, known as 'Altezza lights' or 'Lexus-style' lights.
The first-generation Altezza (codename XE10) was launched in Japan in October 1998, while the Lexus IS 200 (GXE10) made its debut in Europe in 1999 and in North America as the IS 300 (JCE10) in 2000. The first-generation, inline-6-powered IS featured sedan and wagon variants. The second-generation IS (codename XE20) was launched globally in 2005 with V6-powered IS 250 (GSE20) and IS 350 (GSE21) sedan models, followed by a high-performance V8 sedan version, the IS F, in 2007, and hardtop convertible versions, the IS 250 C and IS 350 C, in 2008. The third-generation Lexus IS premiered in January 2013 and includes the V6-powered IS 350 and IS 250, hybrid IS 300h, and performance-tuned F Sport variants. The IS designation stands for Intelligent Sport.
 Produced as a direct competitor to the luxury sport sedans of the leading European luxury marques, the XE10 series Toyota Altezza and Lexus IS was designed with a greater performance emphasis than typically seen on prior Japanese luxury vehicles. The engineering work was led by Nobuaki Katayama from 1994 to 1998, who was responsible for the AE86 project. At its introduction to Japan, it was exclusive to Japanese dealerships called Toyota Vista Store, until Lexus was introduced to Japan in 2006. The AS200 and AS300 Altezza sedans formed the basis for the Lexus IS 200 and IS 300 models sold in markets outside Japan, primarily North America and Europe. A hatchback-station wagon version was sold in Japan as the "Altezza Gita", and in the US and Europe as the Lexus IS SportCross. Overall, the XE10 came in three variants:

Safety

Safety features on the IS models ranged from multiple airbags to stability control systems. A Pre-Collision System (PCS) was the first offered in the entry-luxury performance sedan market segment. NHTSA crash test results rated the second generation IS the maximum five stars in the Side Driver and Rollover categories, and four stars in the Frontal Driver, Frontal Passenger, and Side Rear Passenger categories; Insurance Institute for Highway Safety scores were "Good" overall score for all fourteen measured categories in the front and side impact crash tests.
The second generation IS marked the next introduction of Lexus' new L-finesse design philosophy on a production vehicle, following the premiere of the 2006 Lexus GS performance sedan. The sedan's exterior design featured sleeker, coupe-like contours, a fastback profile, and a repeated arrowhead motif in the front fascia and side windows. The IS sedans had a drag coefficient of Cd=0.28. The forward design was reminiscent of the earlier Lexus LF-C convertible coupe concept.

Marketing

As part of the 2014 Lexus IS sport sedan launch in the US, Lexus and the Tony Hawk Foundation will be asking their fans and supporters to be part of a fan based decal that will be featured on the Lexus IS F CCS-R race car competing in Pikes Peak International Hill Climb. Fans will be able to enter their names via a response to a Lexus Facebook post, a Lexus Google+ post, a comment to a Lexus YouTube IS F CCS-R video and through Twitter and Instagram using #Lexus14K.
As part of the 2014 Lexus IS sport sedan launch in the US, 2 new television ads (Crowd, Color Shift) were produced by Lexus' agency of record, Team One, with Original music from Devo's Mark Mothersbaugh, and directed by Jonas Åkerlund. The 'Crowd' ad emphasizes that things designed to draw a crowd are good, but leaving the crowd behind is more rewarding. The 'Color Shift' ad shows it's more fun and exciting to blend out than blend in. The Two additional ads (This is Your Move, Intense) were created by Lexus' multicultural agency, Walton Isaacson, as part of the campaign. 'This is Your Move' was geared to the African-American audience, features Los Angeles Dodgers center fielder Matt Kemp as he searches for something that matches his ambitious and driven personality. 'Intense' is targeted to the Hispanic audience and follows a young couple as they experience the thrills of driving the redesigned IS 250.
As part of the 2014 Lexus IS sport sedan launch in the US, Lexus outfitted respective editors of Motor Trend and ArrestedMotion.com with the first of Kogeto's 'Joey' panoramic cameras to showcase the performance and stunning design of the 2014 Lexus IS.
As part of the 2014 Lexus IS sport sedan launch in the US, Lexus invited more than 200 followers on Instagram, along with their smartphones, to make a commercial of the 2014 Lexus IS using hundreds of their photos of the car strung together into a video.
As part of the 2014 Lexus IS sport sedan launch in the US, Lexus created and hosted a MADE Fashion Week event in 2013-09-05 debuting a first-ever live holographic performance art experience titled 'Lexus Design Disrupted', featured supermodel Coco Rocha and a bold retrospective from the archives of designer Giles Deacon in a creative concept inspired by the IS and the brand's commitment to design and technology.

Engines

Petrol and hybrid engines
[hide]Model Years Type/code Power at rpm Torque at rpm
PS kW hp kg·m N·m lb·ft
IS 250 2013– 2,499 cc (152.5 cu in) V6 (4GR-FSE) 207 152 204 6,400 25.5 250 184 4,800
IS 250 AWD 2013– 2,499 cc (152.5 cu in) V6 (4GR-FSE) 207 152 204 6,400 25.5 250 184 4,800
IS 350 2013– 3,456 cc (210.9 cu in) V6 (2GR-FSE) 310 228 306 6,400 38.2 375 276 4,800
IS 350 AWD 2013– 3,456 cc (210.9 cu in) V6 (2GR-FSE) 310 228 306 6,400 38.2 375 276 4,800
IS 300h 2013– 2,494 cc (152.2 cu in) I4 (2AR-FSE) 177 130 175 6,000 21.9 215 158 4,400
electric motor 143 105 141
30.6 300 221
combined 220 162 217






Saturday, 26 October 2013

Land_Rover-Discovery

Land_Rover-Discovery

Land Rover is a British car manufacturer with its headquarters in Gaydon, Warwickshire, United Kingdom which specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles.
It is part of the Jaguar Land Rover group, a subsidiary of Indian Tata Motors since 2008.
It is the second oldest four-wheel-drive car brand in the world (after Jeep).
The Land Rover name was originally used by the Rover Company for one specific vehicle model, named simply the Land Rover, launched by Rover in 1948. Over the following years it developed into a marque encompassing a range of four-wheel-drive models, including the Defender, Discovery, Freelander, Range Rover, Range Rover Sport and Range Rover Evoque. Land Rovers are currently assembled in the company's Halewood and Solihull plants, with research and development taking place at JLR's Gaydon and Whitley engineering centres. Land Rover sold 194,000 vehicles worldwide in 2009.

The design for the original Land Rover vehicle was started in 1947 by Maurice Wilks, chief designer at the Rover Company, on his farm in Newborough, Anglesey. It is said that he was inspired by an American World War II Jeep that he used one summer at his holiday home in Wales. The first Land Rover prototype, later nicknamed 'Centre Steer', was built on a Jeep chassis and axles.
The early choice of colour was dictated by military surplus supplies of aircraft cockpit paint, so early vehicles only came in various shades of light green; all models until recently feature sturdy box section ladder-frame chassis.
The early vehicles, such as the Series I, were field-tested at Long Bennington and designed to be field-serviced; advertisements for Rovers cite vehicles driven thousands of miles on banana oil. Now with more complex service requirements this is less of an option. The British Army maintains the use of the mechanically simple 2.5-litre four-cylinder 300TDi-engined versions rather than the electronically controlled 2.5-litre five-cylinder TD5 to retain some servicing simplicity. This engine also continued in use in some export markets using units built at a Ford plant in Brazil, where Land Rovers were built under licence and the engine was also used in Ford pick-up trucks built locally. Production of the TDi engine ended in the United Kingdom in 2006, meaning that Land Rover no longer offers it as an option. International Motors of Brazil offer an engine called the 2.8 TGV Power Torque, which is essentially a 2.8-litre version of the 300TDi, with a corresponding increase in power and torque.
During its ownership by Ford, Land Rover was once again associated with Jaguar – the first time the two companies had been under the same ownership since the British Leyland era. In many countries they shared a common sales and distribution network (including shared dealerships), and some models shared components and production facilities.

Discovery I

The Discovery was introduced into the United Kingdom in 1989. The company code-named the vehicle "Project Jay". The new model was based on the chassis and drivetrain of the more upmarket Range Rover, but with a lower price aimed at a larger market segment and intended to compete with Japanese offerings. This was the only Discovery generation with four-cylinder engines.
The Discovery was initially available only as a three-door version and the five-door became available the following year. Both were fitted with five seats, with the option to have two further seats fitted in the boot. Land Rover employed an external consultancy, Conran Design Group, to design the interior. The brief was to ignore current car interior design and position the vehicle as a 'lifestyle accessory'. The interior incorporated a number of original features, although some ideas shown on the original interior mock-ups constructed inside a Range Rover bodyshell at Conran's workshops were left on the shelf, such as a custom sunglasses holder built into the centre of the steering wheel. The design was unveiled to critical acclaim, and won a British Design Award in 1989. The features that were retained included the majority of the interior being constructed from 'Sonar Blue' plastic (with blue cloth trim), map/magazine holding slots above the windscreen, hand-holds for rear passengers being incorporated into the head restraints of the front seats, remote radio controls on the instrument cluster, twin removable sunroof panels (including a special zip-up storage bag behind the rear seats) and the inclusion of a Land Rover-branded cloth fabric holdall in the front centre console for oddments storage that could be removed from the vehicle and worn as a 'handbag' using a supplied shoulder strap (relatively few of these bags have survived, making them collectable items). Despite such features the interior's basic structure was the same as the Range Rover and virtually all the switchgear and instruments came from other Rover Group cars such as the Maestro and Montego. Similarly on the exterior, as well as the necessary Range Rover panels, the Discovery used headlights from the Freight Rover van and taillights from the Maestro van. The latter would continue to bear the Austin Rover 'chevron' logo on their lenses until production of the first generation Discovery ended in 1998, ten years after Austin Rover ceased to exist.

Discovery I

The Series II Discovery debuted in autumn 1998 and in the US in 1999. Land Rover promoted that the Discovery Series II had been modified with 720 'differences'. The interior and exterior was re-worked to be less utilitarian, but it was still similar to the Series I. Every body panel was new except the rear door outer skin. The rear body was extended to improve load space but at the expense of added rear overhang, which adversely impacted off-road ability. Changes to the diesel engined models saw the 2,495 cc Td5 (in-line direct-injected straight-five engine introduced, in line with the updated Defender models. This electronically managed engine was smoother, producing more usable torque at lower revs than its 300 Tdi predecessor. The Td5 engine is often mistakenly attributed to BMW but the engine was derived from the Rover L-series passenger car engine and developed by Land Rover. The 3,948 cc V8 petrol version from the Disco 1 was replaced with the Range Rover P38 Thor 4.0-litre Rover-derived V8. There was no actual increase in capacity over the previous 3.9-litre engine. Although the basic design of the engine was similar it was actually quite different internally. It used a different crankshaft, had larger bearing journals with cross bolted caps and different con rods and pistons. The blocks were machined differently to accept extra sensors for the Gems and Bosch (thor) injection system and to allow the extra stroke of the 4.6 crankshaft. For the 2003 and 2004 model year Discovery II they changed to the 4.6-litre V8 (though the 4.0 continued as the only V8 option offered in the UK). ACE (Active Cornering Enhancement, an electronically controlled hydraulic anti-roll bar system) was fitted to some versions, which reduced cornering roll. Self-levelling air springs were fitted to some models and European type-approval for seven-seat vehicles was only given for air-sprung cars.

Discovery 3 / LR3

On 2 April 2004, Land Rover introduced the Discovery 3, marketed as the LR3 in North America. It retained the key features of the Discovery, such as the stepped roofline and steeply-raked windscreen. The LR3 name was chosen for North American markets due to negative quality associations with the Discovery name and (according to Land Rover) a preference in the American market for alpha-numeric model designations – the second generation Freelander was also re-designated for the North American market as the LR2.
Land Rover developed a body construction method, marketed as Integrated Body Frame (IBF), where the engine bay and passenger compartment is built as a monocoque, then mated to a basic ladder-frame chassis for the gearbox and suspension. Land Rover claims IBF combines the virtues of monocoque and ladder-frame – though it makes for a heavy vehicle, compromising performance and agility. The LR3 was offered with a rear locking differential.

 

Friday, 25 October 2013

Lamborghini-Veneno

Lamborghini-Veneno

The Lamborghini Veneno is set to make its video game debut in the upcoming Need for Speed Rivals game. The following trailer video for the upcoming game set for a release on November 19th showcases the $4 million Veneno in all its computer generated glory!
With just four units of the Lamborghini Veneno being produced, and just three of those going to customers, it’s inevitable no more than a handful of lucky people will ever get behind the wheel of the real thing. Thankfully, Need for Speed Rivals will give us mere mortals the closest opportunity to virtually get into the driver’s seat of Lamborghinis most outlandish car ever produced.
 ts design is consistently focused on optimum aerodynamics and cornering stability, giving the Veneno the real dynamic experience of a racing prototype, yet it is fully homologated for the road. With a maximum output of 750hp, the Lamborghini Veneno accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in just 2.8 seconds and the top speed for this street-legal racing car stands at 355 km/h.The Lamborghini Veneno features a twelve-cylinder power unit with a displacement of 6.5 liters, an extremely fast-shifting 7-speed ISR transmission with 5 driving modes and permanent all-wheel drive, as well as a racing chassis with pushrod suspension and horizontal spring/damper units.
 In the year of its 50th anniversary Automobili Lamborghini is presenting an extremely exclusive model at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show. Only three unique units of the Lamborghini Veneno will be built and sold. Its design is consistently focused on optimum aerodynamics and cornering stability, giving the Veneno the real dynamic experience of a racing prototype, yet it is fully homologated for the road. With a maximum output of 552 kW / 750 hp, the Lamborghini Veneno accelerates from 0-100 km/h in just 2.8 seconds and the top speed for this street-legal racing car stands at 355 km/h. It is priced at three million Euros plus tax - and all three units have already been sold to customers.
Fully in keeping with the tradition of the brand, the name of the Veneno originates from a legendary fighting bull. Veneno is the name of one of the strongest and most aggressive fighting bulls ever. He is also famous for being one of the fastest bulls in the history of bullfighting. His name became popular in 1914, when he fatally wounded the famous torero José Sánchez Rodríguez during the bullfight in the arena Sanlúcar de Barrameda's, Andalusia, Spain. The Lamborghini Veneno features a twelve-cylinder power unit with a displacement of 6.5 liters, an extremely fast-shifting 7-speed ISR transmission with 5 driving modes and permanent all-wheel drive, as well as a racing chassis with pushrod suspension and horizontal spring/damper units. Above all, however, the Veneno benefits from the very special expertise that Automobili Lamborghini possesses in the development and execution of carbon-fiber materials - the complete chassis is produced as a CFRP monocoque, as is the outer skin of this extreme sports car. The inside, too, features innovative, Lamborghini-patented materials such as Forged Composite and CarbonSkin.

The Design
The Lamborghini Veneno brings the aerodynamic efficiency of a racing prototype to the road. Every detail of its form pursues a clear function - exceptional dynamics, optimum downforce with minimal drag and perfect cooling of the high-performance engine. Yet the Veneno is unmistakably a Lamborghini; it sticks firmly to the consistent design philosophy of all the super sports cars from Sant'Agata Bolognese. That includes the extreme proportions, as well as the powerfully arrow-shaped front end and the interplay between razor-sharp lines and precise surfaces.
The entire front end of the Lamborghini Veneno has been laid out for perfect airflow and downforce. The front end works as a large aerodynamic wing. Large channels guide the air to the outlets in the front hood and in front of the windshield, as well as to the front wheels. Characteristic for Lamborghini is the Y shape of the angular headlamps that reach well into the fenders as well as the scissor doors.
The division of the fenders from the car body is a reference to the world of sport prototypes and optimizes at the same time the aerodynamic flow. The side line of the Veneno is therefore dominated by enormous sills and the mighty wheel arches front and rear. Here, too, sophisticated aerodynamics ensure perfect airflow to the large openings for engine cooling and intake air.
Just like the front end, the rear of the Lamborghini Veneno has also been optimized for underbody aerodynamics and high speed cornering stability. The smooth underbody transitions into a substantial diffuser framing the four sizable exhaust pipes divided by a splitter to increase the level of downforce peak. Large openings serve to ventilate the engine bay and manage the airflow to the rear wing, with the only sealed area at the rear being reserved for the license plate. The rear lights, including brake lights, indicator lights and fog lights, pick up the Y theme as well. The engine cover sports six wedge-shaped openings, with the focus here, too, on optimum dissipation of heat from the engine. The engine cover extends into a large central "shark" fin, which improves efficiency during braking and rear-end stability, by delivering additional downforce at high yaw angles and thus increasing the high-speed cornering performance
The Technology
The Veneno is further proof of Automobili Lamborghini's unique competence in CFRP-based lightweight design. A monocoque made from carbon-fiber reinforced polymer forms the basis of the Veneno. It is largely similar to the Aventador monocoque - as are the aluminum sub-frames front and rear - although its form has been adapted to the new design. All exterior parts are made from CFRP. The Lamborghini Veneno meets all safety and registration requirements worldwide, and naturally also incorporates a full complement of safety systems from airbags through to the adapted ESP handling system.
Carbon fiber dominates the interior of the Lamborghini Veneno, too. The carbon fiber monocoque becomes visible inside the car in the area of the central tunnel and the sills. The two lightweight bucket seats are made from Lamborghini's patented Forged Composite. The woven carbon-fiber CarbonSkin® is used to clad the entire cockpit, part of the seats and the headliner. This unique material is soaked in a very special kind of resin that stabilizes the fiber structure, while allowing the material to remain supple. Like a hi-tech fabric, this extremely fine-looking carbon-fiber matting fits perfectly to any form, and it reduces weight.
The racing personality has been transferred also to the instrument panel. It has been completely redesigned and now, thanks to an aggressive graphics and to the introduction of some additional features like the G-meter, provides all necessary information to the driver for control of the car.

Thursday, 24 October 2013

Caterham 7

Caterham 7

The Caterham 7 (or Caterham Seven) is a super-lightweight sports car produced by Caterham Cars in the United Kingdom. It is based on the Lotus Seven, a lightweight sports car sold in kit and factory-built form by Lotus Cars, from the late 1950s to the early 1970s. After Lotus ended production of the Lotus Seven, in 1972, Caterham bought the rights to the design, and today make both kits and fully assembled cars. 2007 marked the 50th year of production of the Lotus/Caterham 7.
The Caterham 7 is a small, lightweight, two-seater sports car renowned for its performance and handling. Various other manufacturers offer a sports car in a similar basic configuration, but Caterham owns various legal rights to the Lotus Seven design and name. The company has taken legal action in the past in order to protect those rights. In South Africa, it lost its case against Birkin (a competitor) on the basis that it never obtained the rights from Lotus that it claimed it had. The modern Seven is based on the Series 3 Lotus Seven, though Caterham have developed it to the point that no part is the same as on the original Lotus.
 oday’s Caterham cars have a blend of traditional styling and modern components. They can trace their lineage directly to an original 1950s-era Colin Chapman design. Chapman, a Royal Air Force pilot, studied structural engineering and went on to become one of the great innovators in motorsports design.
After the war, Chapman became a highly successful race driver and then founded Lotus Engineering Ltd. in 1952. Chapman’s vision of light, powerful cars and performance suspensions guided much of his development work with the basic design philosophy of, "Simplify, then add lightness".
The Lotus 7 originally debut was at the 1957 Earl’s Court Motor Show in London

The first Lotus 7s were priced at £1,036 including purchase tax but it cost only £536 in kit form as no purchase tax was required. It weighed only 725 lb (329 kg). Fast and responsive, the Lotus 7 was one of Chapman’s masterworks, an advanced machine that surpassed the earlier Lotus 6 as a vehicle that could perform beautifully on the track and be driven legally on the road. The 7’s basic (and much copied) design was to stand the test of time, continuing in its popularity for the ensuing 56 years.
The 7’s evolution continued when, in 1973, Caterham Cars obtained manufacturing rights from Lotus to enable Lotus to move away from 'kit cars' and produce more up-market sports cars. Caterham renamed the car the "Super 7" – an apt name, as it was becoming clear that the car’s fundamental design was nearly impossible to improve having the right balance of strength and handling with a very light weight. Caterham's original offering was the Series 4, since that was the current production car at the time of the handover from Lotus. Unfortunately Caterham suffered numerous supply problems with the Series 4 and by the middle of 1974 they had reverted to the Series 3, which was perceived to have better sales potential. The modern day Roadsports and Superlights (in "narrow-bodied chassis" form) are the direct descendants of this car and therefore of the original Lotus 7.

Early cars used the Lotus Twin Cam engine (subsequently manufactured by Vegantune), followed by Ford cross flow engines. The first Cosworth BDRs appeared around 1983, in 1600 cc 140 bhp (104 kW) form, followed by 1700 cc 150 bhp (112 kW) versions three years later. By 1990 the top of the range engine had become the 2 litre Vauxhall HPC, as fitted to the Vauxhall Calibra, putting out 165—175 bhp. A few HPC "Evolution" models were built with engines developed by Swindon Race Engines producing between 218 bhp (163 kW) and 235 bhp (175 kW). In 1993 Caterham created the JPE special edition (named for Formula 1 driver Jonathan Palmer) by using a 2 litre Vauxhall Touring Car engine, putting out around 250 bhp (186 kW) and reducing weight to around 530 kg (1,168 lb) by such measures as removing the windscreen in favour of an aeroscreen. The JPE was quoted at 0-60 mph times of around 3.5 seconds and, with Jonathan Palmer at the wheel, set a 0-100 mph-0 record of 12.6 seconds. Around 1997 the cross flow range was replaced by 8v and 16v Vauxhall units which, in various guises lived on until the end of the VX-powered Caterham Classic, in 2002.
The Rover K-series made its appearance in 1991, initially as the 1.4 litre engine from the Metro GTi. This engine became the backbone of the range for the next 15 years. The 1.6 litre k-series appeared in 1996 and the 1.8 litre a year later. 1996 also saw the addition of the 'Superlight' range, a range that successfully focussed initially on reducing weight and subsequently on bespoke tuning of the k-series to ever-higher outputs. Weight was saved by removing the spare wheel (and carrier), carpets, heater and often the windscreen (replaced with an aeroscreen), hood and doors. Lightweight "Tillet" GRP seats were usually fitted along with carbon-fibre front wings and nosecone (note however that items such as heaters and windscreens could still be specified by the Superlight customer if they so wanted). Wide-track suspension was added to the superlight, increasing the track at the front to match that at the back. The later Superlight-R offered the dry-sumped VHPD (Very High Performance Derivative) variant on the 1.8 litre k-series. Output was now up to around 180 bhp (134 kW), in a car that now weighed as little as 490 kg (1,080 lb). Three years later Caterham took the same concept to a new level and created the iconic Superlight R500, still based on the Rover 1.8 litre k-series but now tuned (by Minister Racing Engines) to around 230 bhp (172 kW) at 8,600 rpm in a car weighing just 460 kg (1,014 lb). The R500 was initially available in kit-form, but quickly became a factory-build only item. Quoted performance figures still make impressive reading; 0-100 mph in 8.2 seconds (although EVO magazine quotes 8.8 seconds). Perhaps unsurprisingly, such a stressed engine required frequent "refreshing" in order to keep it on the road and a series of engine revisions was undertaken throughout the R500's life in order to increase reliability. This culminated in 2004 with perhaps the most extreme production Caterham of all; the R500 EVO was bored out by Minister to 1,998 cc and delivered 250 bhp (186 kW). At £42,000, the R500 EVO was hardly a sales success - it is widely believed that just three examples were sold. It did however succeed in setting a series of performance car benchmarks several of which last to this day; the 0-100 mph-0 record was set at 10.73 seconds (in second place was a Ferrari Enzo costing ten times as much) and, until the end of 2006 it remained the fastest production car timed by EVO magazine around the Bedford Autodrome West Circuit, ahead of a Porsche Carrera GT. Only the Radical SR3 1300 has subsequently posted a faster time than the R500 EVO.


Caterham Cars has opened the UK order book for the Caterham Seven 160 - its new entry-level variant of the iconic sportscar, powered by a super-compact, turbocharged Suzuki engine.
Priced from £14,995 in component form, the car's live-axle rear suspension, compact engine and low weight embody the pioneering spirit of early Sevens and represent a new entry-point to the Seven range.
The Caterham Seven 160 - EU customers will get an altered version, called 165 - produces 80hp from its 660cc, three-cylinder, turbocharged engine, enabling it to accelerate to 60mph in a brisk 6.5 seconds and on to a top speed of 100mph.

 

Nissan-ZEOD

Nissan-ZEOD

The Nissan ZEOD RC is a hybrid electric racing car which will compete in the 2014 24 Hours of Le Mans race.
The ZEOD RC is designed by Ben Bowlby, who previously created the 2012 Garage 56 entry DeltaWing which had also been backed by Nissan. The ZEOD RC will utilize a hybrid electric drivetrain with lithium ion battery packs in a chassis similar in design to the DeltaWing. The ACO announced during 2013 that Nissan Motor Company had been granted the Garage 56 entry for 2014. Nissan unveiled the car, known as the ZEOD RC, during the 2013 24 Hours of Le Mans weekend.

With its triangular shape and fuel-efficient powertrain, the Nissan ZEOD RC shows that racers can save the environment and capture the imagination.
Nissan first showed the ZEOD at the 2013 24 Hours of Le Mans back in June, or rather it said the car existed. Four months later, Nissan has revealed the complete car.
ZEOD stands for Zero Emissions On Demand, and Nissan hopes to campaign it at next year’s 24 Hours of Le Mans. While Nissan refers to it as an electric car, the version that will actually hit the track next year will have a 1.6-liter four-cylinder gasoline engine – based on the powerplant used in the Juke NISMO and Nissan-powered DeltaWing racer – supplemented by two electric motors.


We’ll see how this unusual racer stacks up against conventional designs at the 2014 24 Hours of Le Mans. The ZEOD will be the year’s Garage 56 entry, occupying a special spot on the grid reserved for experimental vehicles. Because of their experimental nature, Garage 56 entries are considered unofficial, and don’t compete for the podium.
The first Garage 56 entry was the DeltaWing: a Nissan-sponsored car that the ZEOD borrows heavily from. The DeltaWing reportedly performed well at the 2012 Le Mans race, but it was knocked out of contention after a Toyota TS030 Hybrid collided with it.
If the ZEOD doesn’t meet the same fate, Nissan hopes to apply its tech to a top LMP1-class car, and try for an overall victory.

 The updated Nissan ZEOD RC benefits from a more streamlined shape with optimized cooling and improved aerodynamics. Although billed as an electric vehicle and not a hybrid, the ZEOD RC pairs a 1.6-liter turbo four with a pair of electric motors. Its regenerative braking system is derived from the Leaf RC, and after 11 laps, it's said to be capable of taking another around the Circuit de la Sarthe under electric power alone, making it the first racecar capable of doing so. Nissan has further stated that it hopes the lessons it garners from this project will help in its development of a new LMP1 to challenge for overall victory at Le Mans in the near future.
 Nissan unveiled the groundbreaking, innovative ZEOD RC - the world's fastest electric racing car that will reach speeds of more than 300km/h with electric technology at the Le Mans 24 Hours.

The ZEOD RC (Zero Emission On Demand Racing Car) will make its race debut at next year's Le Mans 24 Hour. The global leader in electric vehicles for the road,
Nissan will trial variants of new electric drive train technologies as part of its intended future return to LM P1 competition to challenge for overall victory at the world's most prestigious endurance race.

Nissan's invitation from the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) to compete in the 2014 Le Mans 24 Hours was announced by Nissan Chairman and CEO, Carlos Ghosn in Japan in February. The car will compete under the ACO's 'Garage 56' entry - an additional spot on the grid for vehicles that showcase new and innovative technology.

Wednesday, 23 October 2013

Lamborghini Reventón

Lamborghini Reventón

The Lamborghini Reventón (Spanish pronunciation: [reβenˈton]) is a mid-engine sports car that debuted at the 2007 Frankfurt Motor Show. It was the most expensive Lamborghini road car until the Lamborghini Veneno was launched, costing two million dollars (~€1.5 million, or ~£840,000). Its top speed was recorded in Dubai, UAE at 221 miles per hour (355.7 km/h). The official press release stated that only 20 vehicles would be sold to the public, with one additional car (marked as 00/20) produced for the Lamborghini Museum. Although early rumors indicated the total number would actually be 100,each Reventón is stamped with its number in the sequence of 20 between the driver's and passenger's seats.
Despite the exterior being new, almost all the mechanical elements (including the engine) are sourced directly from the Murciélago LP640. According to the official press release, the Reventón exterior styling was inspired by "the fastest airplanes".
 The Reventón is named for a fighting bull, in line with Lamborghini tradition. The bull, raised by the Sihota family, was best known for killing famed Mexican bullfighter Fahad Iqbal in 1943. Reventón means "Small Explosion" or "burst" in Spanish, when used as a noun. In the vernacular, it is also used to define a very large party or a night in town. In automotive terms, it means "blowout, flat tire" when used as a noun. When it was used as the name of a bull, however, it was intended to be interpreted as an adjective, a quality or property of that bull in particular. In this last sense, Reventón means "he who seems to be about to burst".

Interior

The instrument panel in the Reventón comprises three TFT liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with two different display modes. The instruments are housed in a structure milled from a solid aluminium block, protected by a carbon fiber casing. The car's instrumentation includes a "G-Force-Meter" which displays the magnitude and direction of the g-forces acting upon the car. The seats of the Reventón are black leather and brown Alcantara.

Exterior

The Reventón features an all-new carbon fiber exterior. All Reventóns have the same exterior color, described as "mid opaque grey without the usual shine."
Lamborghini has also picked up some of parent company Audi's design language. It is the first Lamborghini to incorporate daylight running lights into the headlamps. Seven light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at each headlamp flank the bi-Xenon main beam and stay lit whenever the car is in movement. Due to the high temperatures in the rear lower part of the car, special heatproof LEDs are used for the indicator and hazard lights, stoplights and rear lights with a triple arrow optical effect.

Production

The first car went to Lamborghini of Las Vegas, and was allegedly sold to Khalid Abdul Rahim of Bahrain.
On 21 November 2008, Lamborghini announced the delivery of the last Lamborghini Reventón to a British customer of the official Midlands dealer, Lamborghini Birmingham. However, CarsUK's later report disputed the official claim, and revealed that the car #20 was delivered to Lamborghini Houston, as were two other cars.

Sales

Of the original 20 coupes, 10 were delivered to the United States, 7 to Europe, 1 to Canada, and 2 to Asia.
 A roadster version of the vehicle was unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. The car would use the engine from the Murciélago LP 670–4 Super Veloce. Autocar has since published a report, in June 2009, saying that potential buyers have been shown the car–although a Lamborghini spokesman told the publication that reports of the car were "just speculation". Production was set for a run of 15 units, with a MSRP of €1,100,000. The Reventón Roadster has a slightly lower top speed than the Reventón, its top speed is 205 mph and it takes just 3.3s to reach 62 mph.

 

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